Robert Bozick and Steven J. Ingels recently published a report called:

Mathematics Coursetaking and Achievement at the End of High School: Evidence from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002).

The report is available as downloadable pdf. I have copied the description of the report below:

This report documents and examines the relationship between the number

and types of math courses taken in the 11th and 12th grade and growth

in mathematics proficiency over the same time period. Using data from

the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), the analysis

identifies the coursetaking sequences most prevalent among contemporary

high school students in their junior and senior years, sociodemographic

characteristics of the students who follow these course sequences, and

the association between specific courses and course sequences and

mathematics gains over the last two years of high school. Because most

students (94 percent) entered the second half of high school with a

mastery of basic mathematics skills such as simple arithmetic and

operations, most learning during this time was in intermediate-level

mathematics skills and concepts. For example, the percentage of

students with an understanding of simple problem solving skills grew

from 53 to 65 percentage points over the two year period. In terms of

learning in specific content areas, the largest gains in intermediate

skills such as simple operations and problem solving were made by those

who followed the geometry–algebra II sequence. The largest gains in

advanced skills such as derivations and making inferences from

algebraic expressions were made by students who took precalculus paired

with another course. The smallest gains were made by students who took

one mathematics course or no mathematics courses during their last 2

years.

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