The condition of transparency refers to the intricate dilemma in the teaching of mathematics about how and how much to focus on various aspects of proof and how and how much to work with proof without a focus on it. This dilemma is illuminated from a theoretical point of view as well as from teacher and student perspectives. The data consist of university students’ survey responses, transcripts of interviews with mathematicians and students as well as protocols of the observations of lectures, textbooks and other instructional material. The article shows that the combination of a socio-cultural perspective, Lave and Wenger’s and Wenger’s social practice theories and theories about proof offers a fresh framework for studies concerning the teaching and learning of proof.
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